Example of plastic debris found in Antigua. Image by Kristen Weiss

New research led by the University of Plymouth and eXXpedition has shown the islands and seas of the Caribbean are being contaminated by plastics and other manmade fibres, posing a potential future threat to diverse marine life and the tourism industry.

The study represents the first holistic assessment of marine and land-based plastic pollution in the Southern Caribbean and some of the environmental and human factors which might influence its distribution.

Example of plastic debris found in Aruba. Image by Sophie Dingwall.

The Caribbean is renowned globally for its stunning beaches and crystal-clear ocean. However, its islands and the surrounding seas are being contaminated by plastics and other manmade fibres, posing a potential future threat to its diverse marine life and the tourism industry on which its economy depends.

That is according to a new study, the first holistic assessment of marine and land-based plastic pollution in the Southern Caribbean and some of the environmental and human factors which might influence its distribution.

The study is the result of sample analysis from a pioneering all-female Round the World sailing mission led by eXXpedition. Samples were collected in late 2019 from the seas and seafloor, and from land-based assessments.

eXXpedition team members collecting plastic debris on Panama beaches. Image by Sophie Dingwall.

Off the coast of five Caribbean countries, the study identified 18 different polymers of plastic — including, synthetic fibres, paint flakes and acrylics — in waters across the Caribbean, with the highest concentrations (5.09 particles per m³) located off the San Blas islands in Panama.

Detailed ocean modelling and an assessment of regional policies indicated the abundance of microplastics in the area likely arose from a combination of distant sources carried by ocean currents and run-off from mainland Panama, which has some of the highest estimated levels (around 44%) of mismanaged waste in the region.

By contrast, the waters off Antigua, Bonaire and Colombia had lower quantities of terrestrial and marine plastics. Antigua, in particular, had a high diversity of polymers, with the research suggesting the majority of the microplastics collected were likely to have been transported by currents generated in the wider North Atlantic Ocean, even originating in the so-called North Atlantic garbage patch.

eXXpedition team members onboard the S.V. TravelEdge, during the Antigua leg of the study. Image by Kristen Weiss.

Writing in Science of the Total Environment, the study’s authors suggest both terrestrial litter and the microplastics identified in marine samples may arise from the maritime and tourism industries.

That in turn, they say, represents the complex challenges of managing plastic pollution since both are major contributors to the economies of the Caribbean region.

The research was led by scientists at the University of Plymouth (UK) in conjunction with the University of Georgia (USA), Plymouth Marine Laboratory (UK) and the Technological University of Panama.

eXXpedition Science Lead Dr Winnie Courtene-Jones, Post-Doctoral Research Fellow in the International Marine Litter Research Unit at the University of Plymouth. Image by Sophie Dingwall.

Dr Winnie Courtene-Jones, eXXpedition Science Lead and Post-Doctoral Research Fellow in the International Marine Litter Research Unit at the University of Plymouth, is the study’s lead author. She said:

“Until now, evidence of the abundance of plastics within the Caribbean has been lacking. This study presents a snapshot of plastic pollution, and how it differs – in quantity, nature, origin and the policies in place to manage it – across the south of the region. It contributes towards the void of knowledge regarding marine plastic pollution in the Caribbean Sea but also highlights the need for international and interdisciplinary collaborative research and solutions to plastic pollution.”

eXXpedition’s Round the World voyage left Plymouth in October 2019 to visit some of the most important and diverse marine environments on the planet with the aim of inspiring a network of changemakers, informing effective solutions with industry and influencing policy change on land.

Emily Penn BEM, eXXpedition Founder. Image by Yvan Neault.

Emily Penn BEM, eXXpedition Founder and one of the co-authors on the current study, said:

“Our vision for eXXpedition Round the World was to explore remote and inaccessible parts of the planet to pinpoint where the solutions to plastic pollution lie on land by better understanding the sources. The surprising thing from our discoveries is the huge diversity of polymer types which means the pollution has come from many different sources and as a result means the solutions need to be diverse too. We all share one planet and wherever we live the ocean connects us – this study demonstrates why for any game-changing action to tackle ocean plastic pollution all sectors of the community must come together in a holistic way across the Caribbean region and beyond.”

The University of Plymouth was the first to highlight the global problem of marine microplastics – earning the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education in 2019 – and was recently named the leading university in the world for marine research and teaching.

Professor Richard Thompson OBE, Head of the International Marine Litter Research Unit and senior author on the study, added:

“It is now very clear that plastic litter presents a global environmental problem. There are changes we can all make in our everyday lives to help address that challenge. However, it is only by gaining a better understanding of how plastic debris passes from its source to the ocean that we will be fully equipped to tackle the problem.”

The full study — Courtene-Jones et al: Source, Sea and Sink – a holistic approach to understanding plastic pollution in the Southern Caribbean — is published in Science of the Total Environment, DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149098

Example of plastic debris found in Panama. Image by Sophie Dingwall.

About the University of Plymouth

The University of Plymouth is renowned for high quality, internationally leading education, research and innovation.

With a mission to Advance Knowledge and Transform Lives, Plymouth is a *top 50 research university with clusters of world class research across a wide range of disciplines including marine science and engineering, medicine, cybersecurity and psychology. A three-time winner of the Queen’s Anniversary Prize for Higher and Further Education, most recently in 2020 in respect of its pioneering research on microplastics pollution in the oceans and its impact on the environment and changing behaviour, the University continues to grow in stature and reputation.

It has a strong track record for teaching and learning excellence, and has one of the highest numbers of National Teaching Fellows of any UK university. With over 18,000 students, and a further 6,000 studying for a Plymouth degree at partner institutions in the UK and around the world, and over 140,000 alumni pursuing their chosen careers globally, it has a growing global presence.

Visit http://www.plymouth.ac.uk.

* Research Fortnight Research Power League Table 2014.

About eXXpedition

eXXpedition is a not-for-profit organisation led by ocean advocate and sailor Emily Penn BEM on a mission to help people understand the true ocean plastic and toxic pollution problem, so they can use their skills to solve it from sea to source.

Since the first eXXpedition sailing mission in 2014 across the Atlantic, 260 exceptional women have taken part in voyages to create their own narratives, contribute to global scientific studies and use their eXXpedition experience to drive change on land.

The eXXpedition Round the World mission set out in 2019 to sail 38,000 nautical miles with crews of multidisciplinary and multinational women. The voyages were designed to travel through some of the densest plastic accumulation zones to tackle the devastating environmental and health impacts of single-use plastic and toxics in the world’s ocean and the mission was completed at sea and online in summer 2021.